what acts shall be deemed public offenses, or crimes, and
to make laws for securing justice to the citizens in their
dealings and general intercourse with each other; but to
judge of and apply the laws; that is, to determine what
the law is and whether it has been broken, and to fix the
just measure of damage or of punishment, and to order
such decision to be carried into effect, are duties which, as
has been observed, have been wisely assigned to a separate
and distinct department.
~Andrew W. Young, The Government Class Book; Designed for the Instruction of Youth in the Principles of Constitutional Government and the Rights and Duties of Citizens, pub. 1865.